Amida Buddha – Pure Land Buddhism

Amida Buddha is known as the celestial Buddha known as the only Buddha who live in the Pure Land Buddhism. Amida Buddha is also known as the celestial Buddha who is described in the Mahayana Buddhism. Pure Land Buddhism is one of the most popular Buddhist traditions, that is the part of the East Asian Buddhism. Amida Buddha is also known as “Amitabha Buddha“. Amida or Amitabha Buddha is also the best known figures among Dhyani Buddha. Amitabha literally means “Infinite light” and that’s the reason why Amitabha Buddha is known as “The Buddha of Immeasurable Life and Light“.

In eastern Asian Buddhist countries such as China, Korea, worshipped and have high respect for the Amitabha Buddha. There are no. of Buddha statues made for their respect of Amitabha Buddha. Pure Land Buddhism is considered as the largest Buddhist schools in present especially found in the Asian countries. According to Pure Land Buddhist scriptures, Amitabha Buddha was once a king who reigns over the ancient kingdom and later renounced as a Buddhist monks and leave the kingdom for the sake of all the sentient beings to help them free from the misery of life, death, pain, ignorance, and rebirth. As becoming the monk, later he was known as Dharmakara which means “Treasury of Dharma” and was inspired by the Buddha named as Lokesvaraja Buddha.

See More: Pure Land Buddhism

After five aeons of self cultivation of Dharma, monk Dharmakara attained the supreme Enlightenment after taking one of the most important transcendent vows Dharmakara became the current Amitabha Buddha. His tales flourished all around the world and one popular tale was with Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara. It is believed that Bodhisattva got thousand hands and thousand heads from Amitabha Buddha.

For More information on Avalokiteshvara: See tales of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara.

Amitabha Buddha is known for his mercy as well as wisdom. It is believed that Amitabha Buddha reigns over Sukhavati which is also known as Pure Land. It is believed that those who are reborn in Pure Land have the luxury to learn the teachings of Amitabha Buddha about Dharma and won’t reborn until they are ready to attained the Supreme goal of Buddhism i.e. Nirvana. In various representation of Buddha statues of Amida Buddha, the most popular is the representations of Amitabha Buddha with Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, and Bodhisattva Mahasthamprapta.


Shakyamuni Buddha

Shakyamuni Buddha also known as the Living Buddha or Gautama Buddha, had brought the teachings and texts of knowledge as well wisdom to teach to all the beings in the world and thus began the origination of Buddhism. Shakyamuni Buddha is also known by the name Gautama Siddartha. Siddhartha was the royal prince born in the kingdom of Shakya clan under the land of Himalaya i.e. lumbini. Lumbini is the birthplace of Shakyamuni Buddha and the truth that he was the Buddha born from the Shakya clan was the reason that Gautama Buddha was called Shakyamuni Buddha.

Prince Siddhartha spend most of his time inside the palace of Shakya Clan without knowing any pain, suffering as well as knowledge of outside world. In his late twenties, after his request to king Suddhodhana, the king accepted to let him go outside the palace. But King Suddhodhana also ordered the soldiers not to let him know about the painful things, old man. But nobody can win against destiny and Prince Siddhartha found out about the knowledge of pain, suffering, old age as well as death. After much thoughts, Prince Siddhartha decided to renounce his royal status and leave the palace even though he was the father of newly born Rahula. After accepting the ascetic life, Shakyamuni Prince left to gain the knowledge to escape the pain, suffering, old age and ultimate death but couldn’t find answer from many so-called religious teachers as well as religious practices. At the age 35, while sitting under the Bodhi Tree, of Bodh Gaya which is located in India,  Shakyamuni Prince finally attained Nirvana and become the Enlightened One.

After achieving Enlightenment, Shakyamuni Prince became the Shakyamuni Buddha and started to spread his knowledge of Dharma, Karma to all the sentient beings in the world and thus Buddhism started. All of Gautama Buddha teachings are important but some of the popular teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha are Noble Four Truths, knowledge of Middle way, Lotus Sutra etc. Shakyamuni Buddha is the most respected and known Buddha of all realms since the religious tradition of Buddhism started from Shakyamuni Buddha. Even though Shakyamuni Buddha forbid for any kind of worship on his statues, for his greatness, Buddha statues are being made from the ancient time. The Buddha statues of Shakyamuni Buddha are mostly different than other Buddha such as Maitreya Buddha, Laughing Buddha. The Shakyamuni literally means “The Sage of the Shakyas” and due to his clan name he was called Gautama Buddha in later years.

Emperor of Ashoka and His Patriotism to Buddhism

Emperor Ashoka was one of the important Buddhist follower in the history of Buddhism in all era. In simple words, Ashoka can be considered as the true patriot of Buddhism and his later work have changed the scale of Buddhism in the Whole world. Most of you may know the history or biography of Ashoka emperor whereas this article tells you about the patriotism of Ashoka towards Buddhism.

Emperor Ashoka created a huge empire before he became the followers of Buddhism. But after his ordination of Buddhism, he himself spread the word of Buddhism all over his empire as well as some parts of Nepal and Sri Lanka. But what’s more important was his campaign to send many Buddhist missionaries in order to spread the knowledge, wisdom and words of Lord Buddha all over the Asia. It is said that Emperor Ashoka’s missionaries even reached Egypt as well as Greece. If considered in whole, Emperor Ashoka’s campaign was a huge success in spreading the knowledge of Buddhism.

After the Kalinga War (265 BCE), Ashoka regretted the massacre caused by his conquests and become the lay Buddhist monks. After becoming the lay Buddhist, the action of Emperor Ashoka was lead by his knowledge of Dharma. Later Emperor Ashoka started believing true meaning of Buddhism started a campaign to spread Buddhism all over his empire and even outside the India. His campaign started by promoting peace, harmony, compassion, as well as justice which are based on the true principles of Buddhism instead of teaching and spreading the Lord Buddha’s teachings.

During his campaign to spread Buddhism in his empire, he ordered his military officials to help all the poor and sick people all over the empire in order to truly promote the virtue of truthfulness, kindness & generosity. The famous Ashoka pillars were ordered to build in many neighboring countries such Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Even though it got lost during the dark times of Buddhism in India, in 1895 a German Archeologist found the lost Ashokan pillars in Lumbini known as the Birthplace of Lord Buddha.

Some Sutra can be found on the Emperor Ashoka great campaign. These Buddhist texts such as Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa contained the life biography and religious biography of Ashoka. According to these texts, many Knowledgeable monks were sent by Ashoka as emissaries to teach the knowledge of Dharma and assigned in nine destinations such as gandhara, Kashmir, Greece, Sri Lanka, Burma, Egypt, Greece and Thailand. It is also believed that during this campaign, his military official constructed some Buddha statues, images, etc.

Moggallana – One Who possesses Supernatural Power

As mentioned in our previous posts, Sariputra was foremost in Wisdom especially Dharma and that is the main reason that Lord Buddha titled him “General Of Dharma“. According to the Buddhist history, Ven. Sariputra and Ven. Moggallana were the closest friends from their childhood. Along with Sariputra, Moggallana became the true pillars of Sangha during the lifetime of Lord Buddha. As Sariputra was foremost in Wisdom, Moggallana was also foremost in Supernatural powers, also translated as the manifestations of every materials who sheer powers of mind as mentioned in many religious scriptures.

Being foremost in supernatural Powers, Ven. Moggallana later separated himself from Lord Buddha and other Buddhist monks, to study as well as train his supernatural powers. According to Buddhist tradition, it is mentioned that during the event of Ven. Devadatta and Lord Buddha’s 500 monks where these 500 monks were influenced by Ven. Devadatta and leave Lord Buddha to learn from Ven. Devadatta. Later Lord Buddha sent his two most trusted chief disciples in order to help these 500 monks. These two disciples were Ven. Sariputra and ven. Moggallana. As learned from the history, Sariputra teach them the true meanings of Dharma and what it is needed in order to truly learn about Dharma where as Ven. Moggallana showed his supernatural powers to help these monks to understand the true meanings of Dharma as well as teachings of Lord Buddha. After that 500 monks returned back to Lord Buddha and started learning from these two chief disciples of Lord Buddha.

Moggallana and His mother

As mentioned in some part of history, Moggallana being foremost in supernatural powers excluded himself to learn and master his supernatural powers from Lord Buddha and it is said that this training took place in Jetavana Monastery (not proved). After mastering his supernatural powers, Moggallana tried his powers in order to truly helped his deceased mother. After looking for so many years, Moggallana found out that his deceased mother was suffering in the Hungry realms demons. Using his supernatural powers he tried to provide large amount of food to her. Even though she was overjoyed by the food, she was in even great pain because whenever she puts the food in her mouth, the food would burst in the flame and inflicting great pain to her deceased mothers.

Later Moggallana asked assistance of Lord Buddha in this matters and Lord Buddha replied him
“Your Supernatural powers cannot atone for the sins that your mother had committed. Seek all the monks and make offers. Seek help from them and ask them to pray for her mother. Only their prayers can help your mother to be free from the realms of hungry demons.”

And Moggallana did as Lord Buddha asked and his works bear fruit and the monks delivered his mothers. After that Ven. Moggallana attained Enlightenment nearly in same time of Ven. Sariputra.

Vajrayana Buddhism – New Form of Buddhism

Vajrayana Buddhism is once the different form of Buddhism tradition that had huge influence in most of the Buddhist countries i.e. Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.  Many Buddhist devouts know Vajrayana tradition as Tantric Buddhism which is believed to be originated in India. Besides Tantric Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism is also popularly known as Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Way or Thunderbolt way. Vajrayana Buddhist tradition is the evolved form of Buddhism after centuries of multifaceting the Buddhist cultures that existed during those times. According to Vajrayana Buddhist tradition, Vajrayana refers to the third vehicles that lead to the path of Enlightenment.

The sole purpose of Vajrayana Buddhist tradition may seems quite different from other different Buddhist tradition. The main or highest goal that one needs to attained through Vajrayana tradition is to successfully become the Bodhisattva. Theravada Buddhism as well as Mahayana Buddhism teaches the Buddhist followers and Buddhist monks to attained Nirvana or Enlightenment even though the methods are different. The tantric methods and techniques used in Vajrayana Buddhism is to experience the highest goal of attaining Bodhisattva and ultimate truth.

Three Vows of Vajrayana Buddhism

Every Vajrayana Buddhist practitioners must abide by three different vows in order to become the part of vajrayana tradition.

“Who Keep on with a root downfall, who are miserly with Dharma,
And who engage in actions that should be forsaken.
Those Who Worship them go to hell and so on as a result.”

All the Buddhist followers whether they are newly ordained monks or Guru as well as teachers of Vajrayana Buddhism. These vows are the integral part of tradition which helps in the motivation of to help for the sake of other sentient beings to help them end their pain as well suffering.

Some basic Tantric Techniques in Vajrayana Buddhism

Fourfold Division

  1. Kriyayoga (Action Tantra)
  2. Charyayoga (Performance Tantra)
  3. Yogatantra (Yoga Tantra)
  4. Anuttarayogatantra (Highest Yoga Tantra)

The first three tantras are categorized as outer tantras and the last tantra is called as Inner tantras.

Four Purities

  • See one’s body as deity body
  • See one’s environment as Deity mandala
  • Perceive One’s enjoyment as Deity bliss
  • Perform One’s action for the sole benefits of others

Sariputra – General Of Dharma

Sariputra, every time this name appear it represents the one who was known by name “General of Dharma“. Ven. Sariputra was one of the two chief disciples of Lord Buddha during his lifetime was foremost in Wisdom among all the important disciples of Lord Buddha. It is said that Sariputra was most capable of teaching Dharma as well as most of the teachings of Buddha and it is also believed that Sariputra came second to Lord Buddha when it comes to capability of teaching. Whenever it comes to Abhidharma i.e. third basket of Tripitaka in Heaven realms, the name of Sariputra always comes in front.

It is said that Lord Buddha mostly teach about Abhidharma to Ven. Sariputra than most of the Buddhist disciples and Ven. Sariputra later passed on this teachings to other junior Buddhist monks by mastering the Buddha abhidharma teachings. According to Pali texts of Buddhism and as mentioned in Buddhist history, Sariputra had a great insight into the Enlightenment. After hearing the Buddha teachings from Assaji, Sariputra was greatly moved and approached Lord Buddha for his great principles and omnipotent insight on the life, death, realm of heaven, hell and rebirth. Ven. Sariputra was mostly known for his exceptional insight into the teachings of Dharma.

“Of all those things that from a cause arise,
Tathagata the cause thereof has told;
And how they cease to be, that too he tells,
This is the doctrine of the Great Recluse.”

Sariputra & His Teachings for 500 monks

This happened on the event when Ven. Devadatta deserted the Lord Buddha and influenced other 500 monks to revolt against Lord Buddha. The main reason behind Devadatta action was his arrogance after Lord Buddha time was almost up. After Lord Buddha refused him being the leader of all the Buddhist monks, he felt ashamed and influenced other 500 junior monks. Then Lord Buddha asked his two chief disciples to bring all 500 monks and asked to help them from going the wrong path, Sariputra and Moggallana gladly accepted.

Then Ven. Sariputra and Ven. Moggallana approached all 500 monks and Ven. Sariputra preached about Dharma. The preaching of Dharma was so exceptional that all 500 monks who left with Devadatta accepted to return back to Lord Buddha. This was possible only with two chief disciples of Buddha i.e. Sariputra’s exceptional teachings on Dharma, and Moggallana’s exceptional demonstration of his supernatural powers that he learnt from Lord Buddha. That’s why Sariputra was given the name “General of Dharma”.

See More : Life of Sariputra

Sutra – Important Doctrines in Buddhism


Sutra is basically a type of religious literature that is found in religious countries. The term Sutra is known as the doctrines of any religion such Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, etc. According to religious tradition, Sutra is believed to record important religious practices as well as teachings of important figures in particular religion. Sutra are also known by the term thread which is believed to hold things together or basically it holds all the teachings as well religious practices together. The main purpose of sutra is to record the teachings as well as the religious practices and in order to pass it on later generation so that they can follow the sutra and walk on the path of their previous generation paths.

Sutra in Buddhism

In Buddhism, sutra is basically referred only to the sermons of the Shakyamuni Buddha. In Buddhism, the tradition of written sutra came to exist after the success of First Buddhist Council. According to Buddhist history, Ven. Ananda attained Enlightenment a day before the First Buddhist Council and gave sermon from his memory. And from that sermon, a part of Tripitaka i.e. Sutra-pitaka was collected. In First Buddhist council, Ven. Mahakasyapa and Ven. Upali and other senior Buddhist disciples of Buddha gave sermon and took part in the compilation of various sutras that contains the teachings of Gautama Buddha.

After the First Buddhist Council, two oldest Buddhist traditions were introduced in the world i.e. Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. Even though the sutra containing the basic teachings of Buddha are mostly the same, but the sutras that contains the religious practices are slightly different in both tradition since these two tradition have different principles of attaining final goal of Buddhism i.e. Nirvana. The Mahayana sutras were mostly written and compiled 5 centuries after the death of Lord Buddha. Most of the Mahayana sutra were written in the way that Ven. Ananda preached in the first Buddhist Council.

Some examples of Buddhist Sutras

Now in the present time, there are around uncountable number of Buddhist sutras that are written and compiled in different tradition. Some of the most popular Buddhist sutra that are even known to beginner Buddhist monks are Lotus sutra, Heart sutra, diamond sutra, avatamsaka sutra, prajnaparamita sutra, vimalakirti sutra, etc.

You can find number of Buddhist sutra that are quite important for the training of junior Buddhist monks. In many Buddhist community or Sangha, many young Buddhist monks are taught basic teachings of Buddha through various sutras. So Sutra can be considered very important.

Three Jewels in Buddhism

In Buddhism, there are things that all Buddhist monks take refuge in and took guidance from other monks and help them too in a similar way. This process is known as “Taking Refuge in Three Jewels”. These Three Jewels are Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.

“Buddham Saranam Gacchami
Dharmam Saranam Gacchami
Sangham Saranam Gacchami”

Buddhist monks recite these lines in order to remind themselves that they take refuge in Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. Actually taking refuge in Three Jewels is considered to make one an official Buddhist monks.


Buddha is the founder of the Buddhism and was also known as Enlightened One. In Three Jewels, taking refuge to Buddha means one is loyal to Buddha and devotes oneself to Lord Buddha and swore to follow his path to gain the knowledge left by Lord Buddha himself.
Simply saying Buddha, most of the tradition refers to Shakyamuni Buddha.

Read More: Buddha


Dharma, in general, is the teachings of Lord Buddha and is one of the key terms in most of the tradition of the Buddhism. It is also referred as the principle or law that envelops the whole world. Dharma has different meanings in the various tradition of Buddhism.
In Mahayana Buddhism, Dharma means the manifestation of reality. In Theravada Buddhism, Dharma is taken as the term for the key of evidence.

Read More: Dharma


Sangha is the community of the ordained monks and nuns where one looks guidance and help from other Buddhist monks.

Read More: Sangha

Let’s see what it means to take refuge in Three Jewel

Taking refuge in the Three Jewels means to commit one’s life towards the path and way to Awakening or simply attaining Nirvana. It is about freeing from the chain that binds one to the cycle of Life. Triple Gem is considered as the center of the major practices that focus on the mental reflection in Buddhism. It is also about the reflection on the ultimate qualities of Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. These qualities are known as the Mirror of the Dharma in Buddhism and are included in Mahaparinibbana Sutta. When one involve in the Three Jewels then one can attain the true mind like a mirror.
In general, when one realize true meaning on Buddha’s teachings and it’s beneficial then one takes another step. That is to take refuge in the Three Jewels. When one take refuge in the Three Jewels, and then one officially becomes Buddhist monks. After becoming the Buddhist monks, one must commit themselves to take them and liberate them.

How to take refuge in Three Jewels

During the time of Buddha, there was no need for the formal religious rituals and ceremonies but one is considered Buddhist monks if one is keen of spiritual capacity. Even though there was no Sangha Jewel until modern community, but Lord Buddha allow one of the early lay disciples to take refuge in the three Jewels. But in the modern community, people are considered as the official Buddhist monks through religious rituals and ceremonies.
There are two verses that one need to recite to take refuge in the Three Jewels. They are:

I (name of the reciter) to the end of my life, take refuge in the Buddha, take refuge in the Dharma, take refuge in the Sangha. (Repeat Three Times)
I have taken refuge in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. (Repeat Three Times)

These verses can be translated literally as “I will undertake to find my home in the Buddha”, “I will undertake to find my home in the Dharma” and “I will undertake to find my home in the Sangha.

Benefits of Taking Refuge in the Three Jewels

There are a number of benefits by taking refuge in the Three Jewels. Especially these benefits can be divided into eight categories. They are:

  1. One can become a follower of Buddha
  2. One can establish a firm basis to receive precepts
  3. One can diminish karmic obstacles
  4. One have the potential to accumulate vast amount of advantages
  5. One can avoid rebirth in lower realms
  6. One can possess the ability to accomplish all virtuous deeds
  7. One can possess the quality of not being disturbed by all sentient beings
  8. One can have the ability to become the Buddha

Bodhisattva Ten Precepts – Moral Codes of Bodhisattva

Bodhisattvas are the enlightened beings who took vows to help all sentient beings to be free from all the sufferings and pain of this life. These Bodhisattvas follow some moral codes when they are on the path from normal practitioner to Bodhisattva. These set of moral codes are known as Bodhisattva Precepts. Bodhisattva Precepts are widely used in Mahayana Buddhism since the ultimate goal of Mahayana help all sentient beings free from the aspects of life. Buddhist monks in Mahayana tradition, also follows Bodhisattva codes along with other basic moral codes and these basic moral codes are used by every Buddhist practitioners in every kind of tradition.

Ten Bodhisattva Precepts

These Ten Bodhisattva Precepts are some of the moral codes that must be followed no matter what. If one cannot see the seed of Bodhisattva. Lord Buddha said:

“There are ten major Bodhisattva Precepts. If one receives the precepts but fail to recite them, one is not a Bodhisattva, nor is one a seed of Buddhahood. I, too, recite these precepts.
All Bodhisattva have read them in the past, will study in the future, and are studying them now. I have explained the main characteristics of the Bodhisattva precepts. You should study and observe them with all your heart.”

All bodhisattva have recited them and followed these precepts through hearts. May it be Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, Bodhisattva Manjushri, Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha, Bodhisattva Samantabhadra and other great bodhisattvas, all of them have followed these moral codes. These ten Bodhisattva precepts are:

Vow Not to Kill

Buddhist Practitioners must not kill any living beings, must not encourage others to kill. One must not praise the cause of killings or rejoice on killing. One must not create any causes or reasons to kill any living creature intentionally or unintentionally.
Buddhist Disciples must be compassionate and always be ready to rescue and protect any living creatures in a problem.

Vow Not to Steal

This is the second precepts of Bodhisattva. One must not steal what is not theirs. One should not encourage others to steal or creates a cause, conditions and reasons for others to steals and do such heinous acts.
As a Buddhist disciple, one must show mercy and compassion and help people to earn the merits and happiness through good deeds.

Vow Not to Do Sexual Misconduct

As a Buddhist disciple, one mustn’t involve in any kind of Sexual misconducts with any humans, animal, deva or any kind of spirits. One must involve in such misconducts or provoke others to involve in such heinous acts.
Buddhist practitioners rescue all living beings from any kind of sexual misconducts. One must instruct others to the teachings of Dharma and helps them from involving any kinds of misconducts.

Vow Not to use False speech and Lying

Buddhist Practitioner must use any kind of false and bad speech, or encourage others to use such speeches. One must lie or involve in Karma of lying.
As a Buddhist disciple, one must encourage to use right speech, and right views as mentioned in Noble Eightfold paths.

Vow Not to Sell Intoxicants

The disciples of Buddha must involve in any kind of business that sells intoxicants or encourage others to such acts or business.
Buddhist Practitioner must try to help all sentient beings and help them to study Perfection of Wisdom.

Vow Not to Broadcasts the Fault of Assembly

Buddhist practitioner must not broadcast the misdeeds of other Buddhist members. One must not create the causes, reasons, or Karma that offenses other Buddhist members of the assembly.
As Buddhist disciple, one must help those who perform misdeeds and help them to learn the karma of realizing their mistakes.

Vow Not to Praise Oneself while Disparaging Others

One must not praise oneself and speak ill of others and encourage others to involve in such acts.
Buddhist Practitioner must endure all kinds of humiliation and slander and let others attain glory. Slandering others while displays one’s good virtues is a major offense in Bodhisattva vows.

Vow Not to be Stingy and be Generous

One must be always ready to help anyone who comes to one’s aid. One must not be stingy or encourage others to be stingy.
If one gets away from helping others when it is needed out of anger or resentment, then one commits a major offense.

Vow to leave Anger and Resentment

Anger and Resentment is one of the key aspects that lead to major offense or sins. So one must be aware of their anger and always tried to suppress their anger and resentment.
Buddhist disciples must not create the conditions, cause or karma of anger and resentment.

Vow Not to Speak Ill of Three Jewels

Buddhist disciples must not involve or use any slander speech against Three Jewels. One must not create the cause or reasons of slander.
Being a faithful Buddha disciples, one feels the pain of thousands of swords when they hear any slander or offensive language against Lord Buddha. But if one is unfaithful disciples and involves oneself in any kind of slandering Three Jewels such as The Buddha, The Dharma, and The Sangha or The Order, one commits a major offense.

Noble Four Truths – Principle Teachings of Buddha

When Lord Buddha attained Nirvana and got the supreme knowledge about the nature of life in earth, space, and universe, Buddha chose to stay in the world of human so that he could transfer his knowledge to human beings. Lord Buddha mentioned about vehicles in his teachings so that all types of human beings can learn Buddhism and how dharma works. But if pointing specifically, there are two principle teachings of Lord Buddha. They are Noble Four Truths and Noble Eightfold Paths.
It is believed that Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta was the first sermon Gautama Buddha gave after attaining Enlightenment. Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta is the Buddha teachings based on the Noble Four Truths. Buddhist school of Theravada Buddhism is said to refer this sutta as one of the foremost sutta of the teachings of Buddha. This sutta contains all the knowledge about Dharma and enlightenment one can learn from Buddhism. And this sutta is mainly centered on Noble Four Truths. These four truths are:

  1. Noble Truth of Suffering or Dukkha (Dukkha)
  2. Noble Truth of the cause of Suffering (Samudaya)
  3. Noble Truth of the End of Suffering (Nirhodha)
  4. Noble Truth of the Paths that Ends the Suffering (Magga)

The First Noble Truth

Everyone wonders what the first Noble truth of suffering is. Birth is suffering, aging is also suffering, sickness is also suffering, parting from one’s love is also suffering, not getting what one want is suffering, and in fact everything that clings oneself with desire of life is suffering. In simple, the very definition of “life” without knowing dharma is suffering.
In early Buddhism, Suffering is known by the term Dukkha. Samyutta Nikaya states three aspects of Noble Four Truths:

“There is suffering, Dukkha. Dukkha should be understood. Dukkha has been understood.”

In simple, suffering is the common bond every human being and every sentient beings share. Denial of suffering, pleasure, and displeasure are all cause of suffering. Suffering and self-view has deep meaning since self-view on suffering depicts one morality to increase or decrease one’s suffering.

The Second Noble Truth

The second Noble Truths of Buddhism is the cause of Suffering or Truth of arising of Suffering. The second truth is known as Samudaya Sacca in the Sanskrit language. There are three aspects of Second Noble Truths.

“There is an origin of Suffering, which is an attachment to desire. Desire should be let go of. Desire has been let go of.”

The Second Noble truth teaches about the cause of suffering and the principle cause of suffering is craving or thirst. Craving for pleasure, thirst for easy life, thirst for money, craving for success are the main cause of Suffering and the second Noble Truths provides the knowledge of these causes. But no matter how much success you get, how much money you collect but it won’t satisfy this thirst or craving. And these thirsts and cravings arise from the Ignorance of the self. When one doesn’t get what they want or lost someone they love, they suffer since they are ignorant of Dharma and Four Noble Truths. Buddhist devouts and monks believed that Buddha’s teachings on karma and rebirth are somewhat similar to Noble Second Truths.

Noble Third Truth

The Noble Third Truths is about the cure or ending the cause of sufferings. Noble Third Truths teaches about the fading and cessation of the craving or thirst due to ignorance. The cause of suffering and Dukkha can be penetrated by the cessation of suffering. Noble Third Truths also teaches about the cessation of suffering due to vision, insight, wisdom, and knowledge. The Noble Third Truths also consists of three aspects.

“There is a cessation of suffering, of Dukkha. The cessation of Dukkha should be realized. The cessation of Dukkha has been realized.”

Simply putting the Four Noble Truths, the first Noble Truths is the information of what type of illness is, the second Noble Truths is about showing the cause of illness and the Third Noble Truths is about the hope that will cure the illness.
This can be only achieved by the realization of sufferings and cause of suffering, the realization of impermanence.

“This is the truth to be realized here and now,”-Lord Buddha

Noble Fourth Truths

The Noble Fourth Truths is about the way that leads to the ending of Suffering. Basically, the path that leads to the cessation of suffering is the Middle path or “Noble Eightfold Path”. The Noble Eightfold Path is all about right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right effort, right livelihood, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
Gautama Buddha taught that the Four Noble Truths can only be penetrated by walking on the path of Noble Eightfold Path. The Fourth Noble Truth also has three aspects:

“There is the Eightfold Path, the atthangika magga- the way out of suffering. This path should be developed. This path has been fully developed.”

Noble Eightfold Path consists of various elements which are grouped in three sections.


Right View
Right Intention


Right Speech
Right Action
Right Livelihood


Right Effort
Right Mindfulness
Right Concentration
The Noble Eightfold Path can only be achieved thoroughly studying Buddha Teachings, fully devoting to these teachings and Lord Buddha, through meditation, and through harmony.